Jueves, 24 de abril de 2014
Jerarquía eclesiástica

Autor: Andrés-Gallego, José

[ES] Estudio de las actitudes de la jerarquía eclesiástica española ante el
nazismo y el antisemitismo. Se examina la oposición de los obispos al
convenio cultural hispanoalemán de 1938 y las pastorales de los
obispos de León y Calahorra sobre el nazismo y los judíos.

Autor: Heimerl, H. (Hans)

Durante mucho tiempo se sostuvo que el
gobierno universal revestía una forma monárquica, según la terminología consagrada
por Aristóteles. Esta afirmación figuraba
incluso como una de las tesis de los tratados
teológicos: «Thesis XVIII: forma proin
de regiminis Ecclesiae iure divino est monarchica» escribía, por ejemplo, Palmieri
(Tractatus de Romano Pontifice cum prolegomeno de Ecclesia, 3.a ed., Prati 1902, 507).También se decía, en relación con tal idea, que el Papa era «el gran solitario». Sin que esto suponga olvidar las verdades de base en las que se apoyaban los autores, la colegialidad episcopal, revalorizada por el Concilio Vaticano II, ha puesto de relieve que la forma regiminis Ecclesiae es ciertamente original y, si es verdad que no cabe en los otros dos términos (aristocracia, democracia) de la trilogía aristotélica, tampoco es conceptuable como monarquía. El Papa cuenta, para el gobierno de la Iglesia universal, con la asistencia de sus hermanos en el Episcopado, uno e indiviso, del cual el sucesor de Pedro es fundamento (const. Lumen Gentium, n. 18). ¿De qué forma participan los obispos en el gobierno de la Iglesia universal? Este es el tema que, desde un punto de vista teológico-jurídico, estudia Hans H eimerl.

Autor: Bonnet, P.A. (Piero A.)

Summarium
Notum est quod thema de origine potestatis in Ecclesia nec;non de relationibus inter potestatem et ius, inter sic dictum momentum sacramentale et iuridicum, inter ius divinum et ius humanum, Samper particulari attentione ex parte doctrinae canonicae gavisum esto Post Concilium, obviis de causis, haec quaestio iterum proposita est tamquam elementum praevium et fundamentale super quod in alterutro sensu fundamenta totius structurae iuridicae Ecclesiae iacere possibile sit. Positio quae quoad hanc quaestionem sumatur necessario in maiorem partem solutionum repercutit quae posterius pro concretis suppositis, situationibus, institutionibus, etc., sugeruntur. In hoc contextu amplum et documentatum opus Petri A. Bonnet inseritur. Etiamsi observationes personales frequentes sint, tamen auctor directe visionem generalem positionum doctrinalium recentiorum super thema oferre praetendit. Cohaerenter cum fine persecuto, opus circa sequentia capita evolvitur: 1) Doctrina traditionalis et theoria de duplici origine potestatis hierarchicae in Ecclesia. 2) Duplex linea organizationis ecclesiasticae (Hervada et Souto). 3) Doctrina de comp!ementarietate potestatum (Morsdorf). 4) Bertrams et aoctrina de unitate potestatum. In fine, per modum conclusionis, sermonem generalem introductionis resumendo, proprium sententiam de re, quae in controversiam venit, breviter ponit, praefiniendo hoc modo etiam propriam mentem circa Dositiones doctrinales anteriores.--------------------------------
Abstract
As is known, the theme of the orlgln of power within the Church, and therefore of the relations between power and law, sacramental and juridical moment, and divine law and human law, has always enjoyed the particular attention of Doctrine. After the Council, this problematic has be en put forth anew -for obvious reasons- as a prior and fundamental presupposition upon which to establish the entire juridical structure of the Church in one way or another. The posture which is adopted to this effect either conditions, or is reflected necessarily, in the majority of solutions which are later suggested for concrete suppositions, situations, institutions, and so on. In this context we find the extensive and documented work of Piero A. Bonnet. In spite of frequent and personal observations, the author tries to offer, primarily, a general picture of the most recent doctrinal positions with regards to the subject at hand. Thus, according to the pursued object the work is systematically structured around the following chapters: 1) Traditional doctrine and the theory of the double origin of hierarchical powers within the Church; 2) The double line of ecclesiastical organization (Hervada and Souto) : 3) The doctrine of the complementary nature of powers (Morsdorf); 4) Bertrams and the doctrine of the unity of powers. Finally, in resuming the general problems mentioned in the introductory part, he expresses his own opinion on the subject, thus pointing out his particular point of view concerning previous doctrinal positions

Autor: Delgado, G. (Gregorio)

Summarium
Omnibus qUidem notum est Concilium Vaticanum 11 impulisse (multoties etiam instituisse) motum in Toto mutationum organorum in Ecclesia. Copiosa iIIa postconciliarls legum editio signum est manifestum pro dictis. Eiusmodi factum organizativum perpendi potest e diversis prospectibus. Nostra interest perpendere e solo prospectu organizativo, scilicet quod attinet ad technican (artem) definitam quae maiorem efficaciam prae• bet utilitati finium pastoralium. Ideo fit necessarium illam cognoscere technicam, i. e., iIIa iuridica principia quodlibet motum organizativum inspirantia. Hoc studium inseritur isti demum contextui. Cum elucet quonam consistunt, ut technice fertur, illa principia, tum quid eorundem applicatio afterat organizationi ecclesiasticae exponit. Agitur suggerentia criteriorum fundamentalium, generalium principiorum ac organizativae expostulationes quas sibi vindicat vel exigit, tempore hodierno, gravis conatus efficacem organizationem ecclesiasticam instituendi. In specie studet principiis luridicis, ut aiunt, deseentra'libationis, desconcentrationis organicae functionum, hierarchiae, coordinationis ac consultationis. Res his enuntiationibus inclusae sunt vere implicatae cum ad cardines eccleslasticae organizationis referantur. Summas quaestiones adet pro mutatione structura• rum potestatis, iurldlca eius exercitationis normativa, ecclesiastica gubernatione, necessaria unitate et coor• dlnatione, etc, Quaestlones qUidem actualissimae quipus primas deftert attentio, praesentlbus rerum adiunctis, et doctrinae et lpsae ecclesiastlcae auctoritatls.

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Abstract
As is well known, Vat. 11 has stimulated (and in many cases established) a movement of reforms in the Church, reflected in great part by the abundantpostconciliar legislation in this regard. Su eh a phenomenon can beevaluated from different points of view, but we would like to view it from a strictly organizational perspective, that is, insofart as it is a concrete technique which ofters a greater efficacy in the service of pastoral goals. A knowledge of said technique is therefore indispensable, insofar as it is composed of juridicalprinciples which inspire any organizational phenomenon. On the one hand this work emphasizes in what these principies consist technica•lly. and on the other hand, in what their application to eclesiastical organization carries with it. The author suggests basic criteria, general principies, and organizational factors which demand a serious attempt to establish an efficient ecclesiastical organization, in present-day circumstances. Included in the study are the so-called juridical principies of decentralization, organic desconcentration of functions, hiérarchy, coordination and consultation. The underlying issue is truly complex, referring as It does to capital points of ecclesiastical organization. Important questions are thus dealt with: the change of power structures, the juridical regulation of its exercise, ecclesiastical government, necessary unity and coordination, etc. AII in all, a truly relevant theme in
present day life, concerning both doctrine and ecclesiastical authority.

Autor: González-del-Valle, J.M. (José M.)

Summarium
Postquam brevis generalis conspectus offeratur de eo quod interiectis aetatibus et impraesentiarum intelIigitur actuositas pastoralis, hoc verbum hic sumitur pro designanda exercitatione munerum sacerdotalium sacramentaliter collatorum; notatur etiam quod nec titularitas iurisdictionis facit ea ipsa pastorem nec sua absentia obsistit muneribus pastoralibus perfunctioni. .Jntelligitur autonomia pastora lis pro facultate autodeterminationis et autoregulationis in activitate pastorali. Haec facultas usu venit pro summa officiorum ecclesiasticae constitutionis. Notatur etiam quod. etsi
quaedam munera pastoralia -sicuti muneri magisteriali contigit atque pastoralibus actibus qui afferunt imperium -obiri non possunt nisi a titularibus ecclesiastici officii. aliis tamen pluribus pastoralibus muneribus -specialiter cura animarum- perfungi quis potest. nulla ecclesiastici officii titularitate. 'Potest igitur accidere ut quaedam definita organizatio pastora lis sit creatio non auctoritatis ecclesiasticae. sed proprii proventus incepti. charismatis plerumque fundationalis. Organizatio ecclesiastica. ecclesiasticorum scilicet officiorum summa. infrastructuram pastoralem praebet ex dioecesi conflatam et parochiis. Inceptum et actiones pastorales praeter ecclesiasticam organizationem exortae genesim habent. Incrementum et occasum -seriem evolutionis- valde diversa ab evolutionis serie ecclesiasticae organizationis. Quaestiones et solutionis possibilitates quas porrigit renovatio pastoralis infrastructurae ecclesiasticae organizationis -systemae dioceseos ae parochiarumsunt diversae a quaestionibus et solutionibus illarum actionum pastoralium proprii incepti proventuum. Coniunctae ut aiunt pastoralis propositum non est sibi solae vindicare pastoralem actuositatem. Ómnibus pastoralium actionum exercitationis rationibus subiectis communi ordinationi. Acceptio vero autonomiae pastoralis pignus est multiformis actuositatis pastoralis. renovationi patentis, dynamicae. quae aliter iugo vinciretur infrastructurae organizativae, necessario minus agili ob eius propriam indolem atque speciale munus. praestare scilicet curam pastoralem in basi. Pastoralis coniunctae munus est solum coordinare ac pastoralis actuositatis diversas rationes gerere ut cura pastoralis abundantius suos destinatarios attingat. nihil omnino inminuenti autonomiam propriorum inceptorum pastoralium.

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Abstract
After a brief panoramic view of what was and is understood as pastoral activity. both in the past and nowadays, the auther states that the expression is used to denote the exercise of priestly munera conferred sacramentally; attention is drawn to the fact that neither the titularity of iurisdictio implies by itself the condition of pastor. nor does its absence exclude pastoral functions . Pastoral autonomy is defined as the capacity of autodetermination and regulation in order to carry out pastoral functions. This self determination and ruling is understood with respect to the offices and functions of ecclesiastical organization. If certain pastoral functions, such as the function of magisterium or other activities which contain imperium, can only be executed by titulars of an ecclesiastical office. many other pastoral functions -and concretely the cura animarumcan be exercised without having to be titular of any ecclesiastical office. It is possible, therefore. that a determined form of pastoral organization be the creation. not of ecclesiastical authority, ,but rather the fruit of private initiative ... generally a foundational charism. The ecclesiastical organization, or combination of ecclesiastical offices, offers a pastoral infrastructure composed of dioceses and parishes. Pastoral initiatives and activities which arise outside of the ecclesiatical organization have an origen, development. and decadente ... an evolutionary cycle very distinct from the ecclesiastical cycle. The problems and solutions of each are of a distinct nature.
The -pastoral de conjunto» does not have the misión to monopolize pastoral action. subjecting every kind of pastoral activity to a general planification. The recognition af a pastoral autonomy is the guarantee of a varied pastoral action. open to renewal and dynamic. and which otherwise would remain tied to an organizacional infrastructure, and which necessarily usuld become less agile for its very essence and specific mission: to supply a basic pastoral attention. The
mission of the «pastoral de conjunto» is simply that of coordinating and directing the different modes of pastoral authority. so that pastoral attention be given more fully to the faithful, without impinging in any way on the autonomy of private pastoral initiatives.

Autor: Pascua Echegaray, Esther

[ES] Este articulo tiene como objetivo el análisis de las relaciones entre la monarquía y la iglesia castellano-leonesa en la primera mitad del siglo xii, aspecto fundamental para la comprensión de la naturaleza del poder feudal. La autora intenta explicar los flujos que se establecen entre el alto clero, en plena consolidación de su estructura interna tras la reforma gregoriana y absolutamente involucrado en los conflictos políticos del primer cuarto de siglo, y la monarquía, recién salida de una profunda confrontación y necesitada de apoyos sociales. A trabes de este tema se pretende demostrar que la formación de la monarquía medieval no solo es fruto de su relación con la nobleza laica, sino también del papel de la alta jerarquía eclesiástica que, si bien forma parte de la misma clase dirigente, mantiene sus propias actitudes al integrarse en una institución única en la realidad medieval, la iglesia.